TEMA, The Turkish Foundation for Combating Soil Erosion, for Reforestation and the Protection of Natural Habitats

Garden Maintenance, Landscape Design, Project Design and Application Services

As TEMA Foundation's Landscape Department, we are working to create a qualified living environment. In our world, which is in the process of industrialization and urbanization, we design our projects by producing correct, rational and effective solutions that will protect ecological balances by ensuring the integrity between nature and human beings. We aim to support and popularize Eco Landscaping practices by expanding the use of organic fertilizers and the planting of plant species that use less water.

Areas of Activity

Mass Housing Areas, Housing Complexes, Factories, Hotels, Business Centers, Schools, Parks, Squares, Road Afforestation, Archaeological - Historical Settlements, Tourism Areas, Conservation Areas etc. We continue to work in all areas.


Outdoor and Indoor Landscape Maintenance and Planning


Landscape Design

Landscape Project Visuals / 3D Modeling / Presentation

Vegetative and Structural Landscape Applications




Plant Care Recommendations

INDOOR | Plant Care Tips


Dust accumulated on indoor plants both spoils the appearance of the plant and makes it difficult for the plant to breathe by clogging the pores. Leaves of plants with large and hard leaves should be wiped with a sponge or cloth moistened with warm water or by spraying water. To avoid stains on the leaves, the leaves should not be sprayed with water under the sun, this should be done in the shade. If leaf polish is to be used, the polish should be mixed very well first, and when spraying, it should be distributed over the leaves and sprayed from a distance of at least 35 - 40 cm.


All plants need nutrition during the growth period. In the period from the end of February to the beginning of September, fertilization should be done every 15 days, and in the period from the end of September to the end of February, when the plant goes into rest, it should be done less or stopped. With continuous fertilization in winter, the plant will not be able to use the given nutrients and problems arising from excess nutrients will be seen or the cell walls will become thinner due to the nitrogen given and the plants will become susceptible to diseases. Another important point is that fertilization should never be applied to newly planted or diseased plants. Nitrogen fertilizers for leafy plants should be given at appropriate doses and times. Benefits of nutrients for plants: Nitrogen: Increases the amount of leaves, growth and bright appearance. Phosphorus: Helps the formation of flowers, fruits, seeds and roots. Potassium: Increases the resistance of plants against diseases, accelerates fruit set and ripening.  


It is difficult to give a general watering schedule for all ornamental plants. The type, size, type, light, temperature, humidity, soil type, growing season and other factors affect the watering time. Plants should never be left so dry that they wither, nor should they be watered so much that they drown in water. Soil moisture can be estimated by touching the soil. If the soil feels dry when touched with a finger, the soil is lightened, in advanced cases of drying out, the soil is pulled downwards, separating from the sides of the pot. When this is observed in the plant, it should be understood that it is time to water. Plants can be watered from either the bottom or the top of the pot. When watering from the top, watering should be done until the water comes out of the drainage hole of the pot, the water should rise to the plate and the water should be removed from the environment. Bottom watering ensures that the entire soil mass is moisturized. In summer, whether indoors or outdoors, watering should be done in the early morning or evening when the plant is active. Another issue in the cultivation of potted plants is drainage. Drainage is the measures taken to prevent the accumulation of water under the soil. Drainage in potted plants is achieved by placing pebbles or pieces of foam in the holes before planting the plant in the pot. As important as drainage is to prevent the plant root from rotting, excessive drainage is equally important as it will cause the plant to dry out. In case of lack of water, the tops of the above-ground organs dry and wither, untimely leaf fall, and the edges of the leaves curl inward. Leaves of plants left in a constantly humid environment turn yellow and fall off, and flowers lose their vitality. Healthy white roots turn brown and root rots appear due to reduced soil oxygen.  


Leafy plants are generally divided into three categories: Those that are well adapted to low light intensity, those that are well adapted to medium light intensity, and those that require a high light environment. A sudden change from a low light environment to a bright light environment can be detrimental to the plant. Especially in a low light environment, the leaves gradually turn towards the light in order to absorb the available light. This adaptation is disrupted by moving the plant to another environment, and the light cannot be used sufficiently for a while. Moving to a more lighted environment also causes the leaves to turn white and burn. Therefore, the plant must be rotated in its environment to avoid sudden shock. Leaves turn light green when plants that are too sensitive to light are exposed to direct sunlight. At the same time, water droplets on the leaves during irrigation cause burns on the leaves due to the effect of sunlight.


Indoor plants need a temperature of 18-22 degrees during the day and 10-18 degrees at night. When placing plants indoors, the plants should be at least 1 m. away from the radiator in winter and should be in a stable environment where there is no wind flow during the day. Humidity can also be provided by spraying water on the leaves when the temperature is high. In plants exposed to low temperatures, white spots, then burning and browning appear on the leaves. When heat-loving fleshy-leaved plants enter low temperatures, root collar rot is observed. At high temperatures, fainting, yellowing and shriveling of the leaves are observed.

Pot Change  

If the roots of the plant have grown too much in the pot and have formed a root bale, the plant is starting to develop poorly and needs more frequent watering. This indicates that it is time to repot. The general rule for repotting is that the new pot should be one size larger than the old one. If planted in a pot that is too wide, the roots of the plant will not get enough air. If too little or too much water is given during irrigation, the roots deteriorate or cannot develop. At the same time, the plant will stop developing leaves and flower buds as the plant roots will try to cover the environment. When repotting, the roots transferred to the new pot should be pressed firmly after the addition of soil so that they are well fused with the added soil and life water should be given until water comes out from the bottom. Again, excess water should be removed from the environment. The type of soil used when repotting is also important. Generally, a mixture of sterilized peat with a high amount of air and indoor soil should be used indoors.  

OUTDOOR | Plant Care Recommendations by Months

Garden and flower care can be categorized as daily, regular, seasonal and as-needed maintenance. It should be kept in mind that these maintenance measures start at different times and progress differently depending on the region. For this reason, be sure to consider the climatic characteristics of your location.


During bad weather, plants in pots and wooden boxes are not watered, but in the Aegean and Mediterranean regions, where temperatures are more moderate, a little watering can be done when the temperature is around 10 degrees Celsius and the air is dry. Rose bushes should be inspected at regular intervals and pruning should be carried out immediately if early budding is observed.  The repair of trellised structures in which climbing plants are entangled should be started before the buds appear. The snow accumulated on such structures in the garden is removed and the condition of both the climbing plants and the supporting roofs is reviewed. Often a very dangerous crust forms on the soil surface due to wind, poor watering and cold; if it is not frequently broken off and destroyed, it leads to rotting and the spread of animal and plant parasites, as well as damage to the plant root.


Woody plants that have stopped flowering and rose bushes that are flowering again are pruned. Towards the end of the month, the first pruning of hedges takes place. The areas to be reorganised are spaded. Herbaceous annuals (seasonals) are planted in the glazed compartments; this should be done in March-April, unless there is a special planting section, such as phlox, blue succenium, petunia, Indian rose, violet, zinnia, snapdragon, etc.  Winter fertilisation in grass areas should be done this month if it has not been done in previous months. February is the best month to start landscaping the balcony, choosing plants that are favourable to the location. If plants are grown at home in glazed compartments or covered boxes, the windows and doors should be opened frequently to prevent the accumulation of potentially dangerous moisture and to allow the plants to breathe. This should be done during the daytime and the glass doors should not remain open for more than one hour. If the roses were not pruned in January, the pruning should be done this month.


To protect the plants during the winter months, covers consisting of straw, peat, plant leaves and similar products laid on the soil should be renewed for the last time. Planting of plants that have been sown as seeds in autumn or over the winter also starts in March. Ties and joints in the places where climbing plants are wrapped are overhauled. Towards the end of the month, the pots for geraniums and other perennials are repotted with new rotted soil with plenty of fertiliser. Plants regenerate if they have been damaged by frost. Purple Wisteria plant is pruned.  All kinds of deep processing or hoeing can be done on the soil, which starts to lose excess moisture in March. The first half of the annual fertiliser requirement of the plants should be given from this period until the end of April. It should be mixed into the soil with a light hoeing and irrigation.


Rose seedlings are planted in their place. Start planting flowering shrubs or shrubs with beautiful leaves. In a pond or aquarium, plants living under water (water lily, water hyacinth) are placed.  Annual plants that bloom in summer (petunia, vervain, ninya, carnation, glass beauty, godetia, etc.) are planted in wooden boxes. Herbaceous perennials (daylily, snapdragon, anbrietia, dimorphoteca, sunflower, etc.) are planted. The bulbs of gladiolus, bulbous begonia and dahlia are buried in the ground.  Pruning climbing plants and shrubs that have just finished flowering is started.  The tops of the planting boxes or pots with delicate plant species are covered with a cover for shading. The shading cover is made of transparent tarpaulin. Starting this month, in heat- and drought-sensitive species, the potting soil is covered with a layer of peat and the watering of these plants is reduced.


Bulbs planted in spring (hyacinths, tulips, daffodils, saffron), annual herbaceous plants and flowering perennials (primroses, daisies, violets, forget-me-nots, cerastium) finish flowering. The flowering of shrubs (forsythia, cherry, rhododendron, azalea, etc.) also ends and they are covered with leaves. The roses begin to blossom. Flowering or leafy shrubs and climbing plants can also be placed on the balcony next to plants such as geraniums and wood enamel. If the balcony receives a lot of sun, a light-refracting arrangement should be established by placing curtains, wicker or nylon covers appropriately. An irrigation regime suitable for the structural characteristics of the plant, climate, type of pot and soil used should be determined. It is very important that the plants are not watered in excessively sunny hours and that the irrigation water is not cold. There are two ways of planting new flowers in the growing boxes with the bulbs: The bulbs are left in the growing crates and new seeds are sown separately; the bulbs are removed from the crates, set aside and new flowers are sown in the crates.


The branches of climbing plants are tied to the structure they climb with raffia rope. At the end of spring, the seeds of flowering species are collected. (Seeds should be collected in the sun on sunny days and laid out on newspaper in a shady place to dry). If the flowers of the plant are to be utilised as much as possible, the stems are cut in the middle when the crowns of the flowers begin to fade. This process, called mowing, is applied to herbaceous plants, woody plants and semi-woody plants and ensures that many new buds open to form further buds. It is also very important for fragrant plants to form crown buds in order to delay their entry into the full flowering period.


The water supplied to the plants should be increased and care should be taken to avoid the formation of parasites. A rust-coloured powdery cobweb on the underside of the leaves indicates the presence of a red spider. Another important process to be carried out in July is weeding. (Cut off dry and yellowed leaves, small and weak branches, fading crowns with scissors) In roses, grafted trees and ornamental shrubs, it is necessary to cut off the wild shoots emerging from the bottom. In addition, the cleaning of spent flowers is continued. In roses, this is done by cutting off the first healthy leaf after the last flower.  The second buds on the dahlias are cut off, leaving only the first main buds. (So the crowns will be larger). July is also the most favourable month for propagation of tree species by means of dipping branches or branching rods. In lilacs and roses, it is time for production by budding. Nutrient supplements should be given to woody and shrub-shaped plants, summer flowers, especially roses, which bloom throughout the summer. Fertilisation should be stopped at the end of the flowering period.


In August, fertilisation is finished except for summer flowers, flowers on balconies, terraces and in pots. Pre-prepared tree transplants can be carried out from the second half of this month. The lawn is watered every day and cut once a week. The ponds where water lily etc. plants are located are cleaned regularly to prevent old leaves and fading flowers from rotting and poisoning the water. The second pruning of green shrubs and shrub-shaped plants is carried out starting from the middle of this month. Hedge plants should also be pruned. In order for these plants to benefit from light on all sides, a pruning should be made that expands from top to bottom. From the end of August to the end of September is the time of the languid tear. During this month, the soil preparation of the areas where the grass will be sown in September is done. Irrigation, mowing, weeding etc. operations are continued. The presence or absence of parasites and whether the soil surface is lime-bonded or not should be constantly monitored. The bottoms of bulbous plants, herbaceous plants and trees should be carefully cleaned and the lime layer covering the rotten soil should be removed frequently using a small hand rake with narrow tooth spacing. Towards the 10th to 15th of the month, the new roses are "put to rest", i.e. summer pruning is carried out and watering is stopped for a while. Thus, the normal development of the rose bushes is stopped and during the rest the plants accumulate nutrients and strength for the next flowering period. Then, both the leaves and the soil of the plant are watered abundantly. In regions with dew at night, plants should not be watered after sunset.   


One of the very important processes is cleaning the pots. The plant is removed, the soil is emptied and the pot is thoroughly washed and cleaned of germs before new soil is added. With the autumn rains, the soil reaches the soil cultivation temper, even if planting is not planted, it is useful to spend the winter as cultivated soil. It is useful to prepare the locations of the seedlings to be planted in autumn or even spring. It is useful to make autumn planting early. Saplings planted before winter will be more resistant to winter conditions if they have time to work their roots. By the way, it is important to remember that soilless seedlings should be planted in November. In order to prevent especially tall and branched saplings from being affected by the wind after planting, it is necessary to make tension without damaging the sapling body.  Winter flower seedlings and spring bulbs can be planted. Large tree transplants can be realised. The bulbs of bulbous flowers planted in spring are uprooted in this month, especially in dry weather. Stored in dry and airy places.


Depending on the condition of the garden and the work you want to do, October is the ideal month for all kinds of soil cultivation such as ploughing, hoeing or digging seedling holes. Organic fertiliser can be applied before tillage. All kinds of seedlings with roots in the container with soil can be planted. Planting of winter flower seedlings, bulbous flowers such as tulips, hyacinths, daffodils blooming in spring is continued. Adonis, morning glory, hedge bindweed, goose foot, chickweed, phlox can be planted. Geraniums can be propagated by taking cuttings. Onion and tuberous plants planted in spring should be uprooted before the first frosts; (begonia, star, henna, gladiolus, etc.) Replace the surface of the soil in the pots of herbaceous perennials and shrubs with new, fertilised soil. New trees are planted in clusters or as climbing trees. The soil surfaces of the most delicate plants start to be covered with peat or straw from the packaging; less hardy plants are collected in the most airy and sunny part of the balcony.


All kinds of earthworks are carried out as long as weather and soil conditions are favourable. Before winter, it is advisable to weed and fluff the base of the plants. It is also useful to cover the root bases with peat, leaf litter, compost and organic fertiliser in preparation for winter conditions. This month is ideal for planting both bare-root and soil-rooted seedlings in containers. Planting can be continued until the soil becomes unworkable due to snow and frost.


This month is not only the month of planting but also the month of pruning. It is especially important for shrubs and ornamental shrubs that produce their flowers on shoots in spring. In roses, pruning is done by cutting the branches and shoots in half; in other plants, the type of pruning should be adjusted according to the type and need of the plant. The tips of branches and shoots pruned during this period may freeze in winter. Then these dead tips have to be cut again in spring. To prevent this, the pruned parts can be treated with vaccination paste.